US President Donald Trump hit TikTok in its most profitable market Thursday when he moved to ban it — together with Tencent’s super-app WeChat — in 45 days. That adopted efforts by Trump to get Zhang to unload TikTok’s U.S. operations to Microsoft Corp. or one other American suitor by Sept. 15. When Chinese language President Xi Jinping’s navy grew to become embroiled in a lethal border conflict with India in June, a surge of anti-China sentiment led to the banning of greater than 60 Chinese language apps — together with TikTok within the nation the place it has essentially the most downloads.
TikTok’s success has made it a high-profile goal for Trump, whose robust stance on China — sparring on every thing from commerce to Huawei Applied sciences Co. to the South China Sea — is a centerpiece of his re-election marketing campaign. Apart from TikTok and WeChat, his administration has thought of banning extra Chinese language apps, an effort to forestall Beijing from accessing knowledge from Individuals utilizing techniques as soon as championed by China.
Zhang, whose ByteDance Ltd. owns TikTok, was on the verge of constructing the world’s third really world promoting and social-media pressure. Now, stress from Beijing and Washington has put that dream in peril, forcing the 37-year-old billionaire founder to decide rooted in politics not enterprise. As anger mounts in China about Trump’s assaults on TikTok, Zhang might even determine to not promote. TikTok mentioned in a strongly worded assertion Friday that it’s “shocked” by Trump’s ban and can pursue all cures accessible, together with by means of the U.S. courts.
ByteDance’s worldwide adventures “are good little jaunts, however shedding a couple of abroad markets isn’t an existential menace to the corporate,” mentioned Michael Norris, a analysis and technique supervisor with the Shanghai consulting agency AgencyChina. “However shedding China and falling foul of the authorities in Beijing is.”
Zhang has by no means been one to do the anticipated. For years, he managed to stay impartial from Alibaba Group Holding Ltd. and Tencent Holdings Ltd. — the dual suns of China’s web. His Chinese language tech friends can’t say the identical. Experience-hailing large Didi Chuxing counts Tencent as a serious investor. So does food-delivery platform Meituan Dianping.
Zhang has made it clear he doesn’t need to go down the identical path. Responding to rumors in 2016 that Tencent was keen to purchase ByteDance, Zhang wrote on social media that he didn’t discovered his firm simply to change into a Tencent worker. Within the put up, he quoted lyrics from the band American Authors, “So if I’m gonna go in any respect, go huge or go go go, go huge or go house.”
Born in 1983 within the southern metropolis of Longyan, Zhang is the one son of civil servants. He studied programming at Nankai College in Tianjin. There he constructed a following on the college’s on-line discussion board by repairing classmates’ computer systems and likewise met his future spouse. After commencement he joined Microsoft for a quick stint, however later mentioned in an interview that the job was so boring he usually “labored half of the day and browse books within the different half.”
Zhang began ByteDance in 2012, luring China’s prime engineers with hefty paychecks. One of many startup’s first apps, Neihan Duanzi — it means “implied jokes” in English — used synthetic intelligence to tailor a collection of memes to particular person tastes. After attracting tens of hundreds of thousands of customers and refining its AI algorithms with huge knowledge, ByteDance used the identical strategy to create the news-recommendation app Jinri Toutiao, or “right now’s headlines.” It grew to become ByteDance’s first blockbuster hit.
It wasn’t lengthy earlier than Zhang ran afoul of Beijing. In 2018 he apologized to regulators for spreading content material not in keeping with “socialist core values” and shut down the joke app. “We profoundly perceive that our fast growth was a chance afforded us by this nice period.” Zhang wrote in an open letter. “I thank this period. I thank the historic alternative of financial reform and opening; and I thank the assist the federal government has given for the event of the know-how business.”
The mea culpa is an early instance of the hoops Zhang has needed to soar by means of to maintain forward of regulators, first at house and later abroad. He initially tried to push a Toutiao-style information app in English-speaking nations, however solely grew to become a critical rival to Fb Inc. and Alphabet Inc. with quick movies. In 2017, ByteDance bought the lip-syncing app Musical.ly that later morphed into TikTok, a deal that has been underneath the assessment by the Committee on Overseas Funding in the US, or CFIUS, for allegedly posing national-security threats.
TikTok quickly took off globally, with greater than two billion downloads so far, together with its Chinese language twin service Douyin. The U.S. is TikTok’s most profitable market by way of in-app spending and is grabbing advert income which may in any other case go to Fb’s Instagram and different social-media apps. At present ByteDance is the world’s Most worthy startup, with a valuation of as a lot as $140 billion. Final 12 months, Zhang’s firm generated greater than $three billion of internet revenue on greater than $17 billion in income, Bloomberg reported in Could.
However amid rising issues about Chinese language energy, TikTok has change into an object of suspicion in a number of nations. The very last thing Zhang desires is an outright ban within the U.S., the place he has constructed up TikTok’s operations, employed an American chief and reassured regulators that consumer knowledge received’t be shared exterior the nation. He has additionally stepped up lobbying in Washington, pledged to create 10,000 American jobs and created a $200 million fund to assist U.S. TikTok stars. However these measures have did not fulfill the Trump administration.
“Zhang is dealing with the identical dilemma that each Chinese language and U.S. tech companies face getting into one another’s market area,” mentioned Kendra Schaefer, head of digital analysis at consultancy Trivium in Beijing. “Chinese language platforms, together with these run by ByteDance, are strolling the identical wonderful line domestically as many overseas tech companies do in China: placating regulators whereas trying to innovate and keep worthwhile.”
The reclusive founder has expressed his frustration with U.S. authorities to ByteDance workers. In an all-hands memo on Monday, Zhang mentioned he disagrees with CFIUS’s demand that he promote TikTok’s U.S. operations. “We’ve repeatedly harassed that we’re a privately run enterprise,” he wrote. Sooner or later later, in one other letter to China workers, he known as the compelled sale “unreasonable.” “However this isn’t their aim, and even what they need,” he mentioned. “Their actual goal is to attain a complete ban.”
Zhang can’t depend on the type of assist his countrymen have lavished on Huawei founder Ren Zhengfei, who’s locked in his personal battle with the Trump administration. Huawei is a bona fide nationwide champion that builds state-of-the-art smartphones and networking gear. ByteDance makes shopper apps, nevertheless common. Zhang even needed to conceal his posts on the microblogging web site Weibo after his account was flooded with feedback slamming him as a “traitor” for even contemplating promoting to an American firm.
Nonetheless, Beijing appears to have his again — if just for geopolitical leverage. In a every day press convention on Friday, the Overseas Ministry blasted the U.S. for “utilizing nationwide safety as an excuse and utilizing state energy to oppress non-American companies.” State newspaper China Day by day had earlier known as on ByteDance to defend its rights legally in opposition to what it described as a “smash and seize” by Trump.
When requested about privateness issues introduced by Toutiao hoovering up consumer knowledge in 2015, Zhang advised a panel in Shanghai, “Machines and algorithms will develop smarter, however they’re at all times harmless.” When challenged by the moderator that he’s the true boss behind the machine, Zhang replied with a chuckle: “I’m additionally at all times harmless.”